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Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Kilic I/II class fast attack craft of the Turkish Navy

Written by D-Mitch

Meltem, boat of Kilic II class. Photo: Turkish Navy
The Kilic (Kılıç) class is the latest class of fast attack craft in service of the Turkish Navy. The class comprises a total of 9 ships. The first batch of three boats are designated Kılıc I (or else Kilic class) and the second batch of six boats are designated Kılıc II (or else Tufan class). The boats are designed by Lurssen; the first batch of ships entered in service the period 1998-2000 while the second batch commissioned the period 2005-2010. The main differences between the two classes are the electronic equipment (specifically the EO fire control tracking system) and the cupola of the main gun. The first two boats were built in Germany and the rest in Turkey (Golcuk shipyards). The full displacement of these boats with the stealth characteristics is 552tons, the length is 62m, the speed is about 40knots and the range is 3,300n.m. with a cruise speed of 16knots. On the bow deck it is an OTO Melara 76mm/62cal gun; it is not clear though if it belongs to the latest Super Rapido version or the older Compatto. The guns onboard the boats of Kilic II class are mounted in a stealth cupola to reduce radar cross-section. The gun is capable to intercept air and surface targets at a distance of 16 km unleashing 85rnds/min (Compatto) or 120 rnds/min (Super Rapido), weighting greater than 6 kg each.

Kilic I and II class FACs in formation. Photo: Cem Dogut

At the aft of the boats there is an OTO Melara naval mount with two 40mm/70cal guns. It is not clear though if it is the Compact version with 600rnds/min (2 × 300rnds/min) or the twin Fast Forty with the incredible rate of fire of 900rnds/min (2 × 450rnds/min). It is suspected that the naval mount belongs to the latest and more capable version. According to the manufacturer, a twin Fast Forty, can destroy an incoming supersonic missile flying in a straight line at ranges as great as 3,000 meters. In general, the maximum horizontal range is about 12,500m, the range for AA targets is greater than 8km while the effective firing range of the system is 4km.

Modified photo of  Kilic II class fast attack craft of Turkish Navy. For a high resolution image click here.

The main armament of the ships is eight (8) Boeing RGM-84C Harpoon anti-ship missiles in two Mk140 light-weight quad launchers amidships. These missiles have a range greater than 120km, sub-sonic of speed of 860km/h (Mach 0.9) and they carry a warhead of 221kg. However the boats have never been spotted with all the missiles on board but the maximum with four launchers. Harpoon missile has a low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory, active radar guidance and it is capable to perform the so-called pop-up manoeuver which it is a rapid climb of the missile to about 1,800m before diving on the locked target.

M2 12.7mm and Stinger mounts.
Photo: warshipsonthebosphorus.
blogspot.com
Zipkin, boat of Kilic II class.
Photo: warshipsonthebosphorus.blogspot.com

The main gun of Zipkin, Kilic II class.
Photo: warshipsonthebosphorus.blogspot.com
OTO Melara Fast Forty of  Zipkin.
Photo: warshipsonthebosphorus.
blogspot.com
Harpoon launchers of  Zipkin.


The armament completes two M2 12.7mm heavy machine guns, one at each side of the main mast, and two Raytheon FIM-92 Stinger mounts (similarly to all Turkish fast attack craft) amidships for point defense. The Stinger missile carries a high explosive annular blast fragmentation 3kg warhead in a range (effective) of more than 8 kilometers.

Stinger SAM launch from a Dogan/Ruzgar class missile boat. Each
of the Kilic boats has two identical mounts
MW08
The mast of a Kilic class FACM
The vessels have the MW08 of Thales (formerly Signaal), an all-weather G-band (C-band) 3-D short to medium-range surveillance and target acquisition radar. The multi-beam concept of the MW08 provides a near-hemispherical coverage in one scan without the need for search patterns in the elevation domain. It enables very rapid target acquisition and tracking by weapon control systems, by providing target range, elevation, bearing and velocity data for each threat on every radar scan. All system functions, including target detection, air track initiation, target tracking and built-in test equipment, are automatic. Surface track initiation can be performed automatically or manually. Multistripline antennas, with digital Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) beamformer, Doppler FFT processing and tracking, minimise the effects of clutter and jamming. The MW08 is capable of tracking up to 160 air targets and 40 surface targets simultaneously. Track data, and (optional) IFF data, is transferred to the command and control system and, to the weapon deployment console for direct surface-to-target engagement. The system detects targets up to Mach 4 and maximum free-space, singlo-scan detection range, at 80% probability of detection 0.1 m2 in 17 km (source). The radar is designed to counter threats from aircraft and low flying antship missiles. It can also deal with the high level missile threat.

Atak, Kilic II class
Kilic, Kilic I class
STING EO
The boats are equipped also with the STING-EO Mk2 of Thales, a highly capable, medium range, lightweight, dual band (I and K) weapon control system, primarily for gun control. The system offers support functions such as sector search (with automatic target detection), missile launch detection, projectile position measuring during gun fire and kill assessment support, it supports gun fire control, it performs kill assessment and makes a valuable contribution to classification and identification of threats. In addition, the system can be used as a surveillance sensor, even under radar silence conditions. STING-EO Mk2 combines a 1.2 m radar director with a full set of electro-optic equipment (TV/IR/laser), including optronic tracking and an automatic ‘best sensor’ selection process. The three data sources (I, K and EO) provide high redundancy, high performance and ECCM resistance. A shell-measuring feature is incorporated to support facilities such as Pre-Action Calibration (PAC) and Miss Distance Indication (MDI). The fully solid state STING-EO Mk2 provides the best weapon control for medium-sized vessels. The instrumental ranges are 72km in X-band and 17km in K-band.

View of the stern, Imbat, Kilic II class.
SCOUT Mk2
Kilics have the SCOUT Mk2 Thales Naval Nederland, a Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) short-to-medium range surface surveillance and tactical navigation radar. Scout can be operated as a stand-alone mobile system for flexible responsiveness. Additionally, the system can be operated remotely (radio or line connection). It is an all-weather fully solid-state system of high reliability operating in X-band radar featuring Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave (FMCW) and therefore has an extremely low output power which makes the system ideal for cover operations in hostile environments where radar silence is required and thus its transmissions cannot be detected by ESM systems or radar warning receivers. SCOUT Mk2 outstandingly detects targets in adverse sea clutter conditions, thanks to its very small range cell size. The system is also very suitable for coastal surveillance. The range of the radar exceeds the 44km. In the same antenna it is integrated also a Kevin Hughes 1007 navigation radar.

Tufan lead vessel of the Kilic II class. Photo: Cem Dogut
LIOD
LIROD
Kilic I class is equipped with a Thales LIOD Mk2 electro-optical targeting and acquisition sensor system. This sensor is for automatic, optronic tracking of air, for surface targets and against asymmetric tactics such as piracy and insurgency. The basic sensor set consists of TV and IR cameras in combination with an eye-safe laser range-finder. It is a passive sensor, which are difficult to detect and completely insensitive to ECM. The Thales LIROD Mk2 fire control tracking system equips the Kilic II class. LIROD Mk 2 is Thales Naval Nederland's lightweight combination of a K-band pencil-beam tracking TWT radar and a TV camera. LIROD Mk 2 has been designed primarily for use as a target tracking system for gunfire control and it can operate either as a main sensor in an autonomous weapon control system or as a secondary sensor, integrated in a combat system configuration. LIROD Mk 2 is particularly suitable for short range all-weather operation where high accuracy is required combined with low-level capability, low susceptibility to jamming and the possibility of passive operation. For upgrade and ship-life-extension-programs (SLEP), the system can be adapted to long range search, identification and classification of asymmetric threats as piracy and insurgency.

The lead ship in the class, Kilic. Photo: Frank Behrends
 
Thales TDS
Each vessel is equipped with a Thales Target Designation Sight (TDS) that provides means for optical investigation, target designation and weapon firing. The TDS is equipped with binoculars and the latest version includes a Laser Range Finder. Bearing and elevation data are fed into the CMS system but the TDS can also be used for emergency control of a gun or CIWS system. The importance of the function of the TDS is re-emphasised against asymmetric tactics such as piracy and insurgency. Kilics are equipped with the Racal Cutlass 1C Electronic Support Measures (ESM) system for electronic warfare. The vessels also feature a datalink Link 11, integrated together with the other weapons, guns, radars, sensors, EW system, chaff launchers and communications in the TACTICOS Combat Management System of the vessels. TACTICOS integrates all subsystems for synchronised performance of the combat system and ship. It is designed to fully support a combat team in every stage of a naval operation, from pre-mission planning right up to post-mission analysis. This includes assessing and monitoring the tactical situation, planning and co-ordinating actions, and controlling actions and weapons.

Beautiful photo of Kilic I/II boats in formation. Photo: Cem Dogut
Mk137 decoy launcher of Mk36 SRBOC
To deceive enemy missiles except ESM countermeasures, the class is also equipped with an  Mk36 Super Rapid Bloom Offboard Countermeasures (SRBOC) Chaff and Decoy Launching System  which is linked to the ESM wind and navigation sensors. The Mk36 is a deck-mounted, mortar-type countermeasure system that may be used to launch an array of chaff cartridges against a variety of threats. The purpose of the system is to confuse hostile missile guidance and fire control systems by creating false signals. The launching system is controlled from the Combat Information Center and is dependent on information provided by the detection and threat analysis equipment on the ship. The Mk36 consists of the Mk137 launchers (two in Kilic I/II class), the Mk158 Mods 1 and 2 master launcher control, the Mk164 Mods 1 and 2 bridge launcher control, the Mk160 Mod 1 power supply, the Mk5 Mod 2 or Mk6 Mod 0 ready service lockers, and a range of munitions. Each Mk 137 launcher has six 130-mm fixed tubes arranged in two parallel rows at angles of 45 and 60 degrees. The firing circuits employ electromagnetic induction to initiate the propelling charges in the cartridges. Near each launcher is a deck locker with up to 20 Mk5 or 35 Mk6 rounds for quick reload.

Imbat, Kilic II class. Photo: militaryedge.org

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